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Monocrystalline

Crystalline silicon was the original materials technology used by the PV industry to manufacture solar cells. First widely used in space satellites, conventional crystalline silicon solar cells are fabricated in a step-and-repeat, batch process from small wafers of single crystal or polycrystalline silicon semiconductor materials. Although, substantial advances have been made in the development of this technology, the cost of crystalline PV modules is still high because of materials costs and numerous processing steps that are needed to manufacture the modules. Crystalline silicon solar modules are bulky, break easily, and consume more energy in manufacturing.

Amorphous cells with different light absorption properties deposited continuously, one on top of another, to capture the broad solar spectrum more effectively. This increases the energy conversion efficiency of the multi-cell device and improves performance stability. The multi-junction approach has resulted in world record efficiencies for these cells. Each of the nine thin-film semiconductor layers that comprise the cell is sequentially deposited in separate, dynamically-isolated, plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) chambers as the stainless steel substrate progresses through the machine.